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Medications that reduce the workload/stress of the heart ("Afterload Reduction")

 

Name Enalapril
Class Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor
Indications Hypertension (High blood pressure)
Mechanism of Action Enalapril blocks the formation of certain chemicals in the body that usually act on blood vessels of the body to maintain an adequate blood pressure. Blocking these chemicals allows the blood vessels of the body to "relax" and dilate, decreasing the pressure within them (and thus, decreasing "blood pressure").
Dosing

Initial dose: 0.1mg/kg/day (no more than 5mg per day), given by mouth, once daily.

Maintenance dose: total daily dose up to 0.5mg/kg/day (no more than 40mg per day)

How it's Given by mouth
Frequency once or twice per day, as instructed
Time of Onset 1 hour
Side Effects dizziness, headache, chest pain, cough, rash

 

 

Name Lisinopril
Class Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor
Indications Hypertension (High blood pressure)
Mechanism of Action Lisinopril blocks the formation of certain chemicals in the body that usually act on blood vessels of the body to maintain an adequate blood pressure. Blocking these chemicals allows the blood vessels of the body to "relax" and dilate, decreasing the pressure within them (and thus, decreasing "blood pressure").
Dosing

 if 6-12years old, the initial dose is 0.07mg/kg/day (no more than 5mg/day) and the maintenance dose is up to 0.6mg/kg/day (no more than 40mg per day

if older than 13 years, the dose ranges from 150 to 300mg per day.

How it's Given by mouth
Frequency

once daily

Time of Onset starts working in 1 hour with it's peak effect within 6 hours
Side Effects dizziness, cough, headache, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

 

 

Name Captopril
Class Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor
Indications Hypertension (High blood pressure)
Mechanism of Action Captopril blocks the formation of certain chemicals in the body that usually act on blood vessels of the body to maintain an adequate blood pressure. Blocking these chemicals allows the blood vessels of the body to "relax" and dilate, decreasing the pressure within them (and thus, decreasing "blood pressure").
Dosing

For neonates (babies less than 1 month old), the starting dose is 0.05mg/kg/dose to 0.1mg/kg/dose. The maximum dose is 0.5mg/kg/dose

For infants (babies older than 1 month, but less than 1 year), the starting dose is 0.15-0.3 mg/kg/dose; titrate dose upward to maximum 6 mg/kg/day in 1-4 divided doses; 2.5-6 mg/kg/day usually required

For younger children, the starting dose is 0.3-0.5 mg/kg/dose with a maximum of 6 mg/kg/day 

For older children, the starting dose is 6.25-12.5 mg/dose with a maximum of 6 mg/kg/day

For adolescents, the starting dose is 12.5-25 mg/dose with a maximum of 450 mg/day

How it's Given by mouth
Frequency varies depending on age and dose, though may be every 6 to 24 hours as instructed
Time of Onset starts working in 15 to 30minutes, with a peak effect within 1.5 hours
Side Effects high blood potassium levels, cough, chest pain, rash, itchiness, elevated heart rate, protein in the urine

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Children's Heart Institute

P. O. Box 10066 McLean, VA 22102

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