Medications that reduce congestion in the blood vessels of the lungs ("Anti-Congestive Medications")

Name Lasix (furosemide)
Class Diuretic
Indications decreasing vascular congestion in the lungs; management of high blood pressure (hypertension)
Mechanism of Action Lasix works by blocking the reabsorption of salt (sodium and chloride) by the kidneys, resulting in a profound increase in urine output
Dosing 1-2mg/kg/dose (by mouth), 1mg/kg/dose (IV)
How it's Given by mouth or IV
Frequency every 12 to 24 hours
Time of Onset ~ 50minutes (by mouth) or 20 minutes (IV)
Side Effects low levels of magnesium, calcium, potassium

 

Name Digoxin
Class Contractility, Anti-arrhythmic
Indications improving the heart's pumping capacity (contractility); decreasing vascular congestion in the lungs; prevention or suppression of abnormal tachycardias
Mechanism of Action Digoxin acts on specific proteins within heart muscle cells, causing the heart to beat stronger (increased contractility) and slower.
Dosing Loading (building up high concentrations in a short period of time): for oral administration, 20-30micrograms/kg in 3 divided doses (every 8 hours)
  Maintenance (maintaining steady concentrations over a long period of time): for oral administration, 5-10 micrograms/kg/day in 2 divided doses (every 12 hours)
  IV dosing is 75% of oral dosing
  *** Specifc dosing depends on the patient's age. For infants, gestational age is also taken into account
How it's Given by mouth or IV
Frequency every 12-24 hours
Time of Onset oral: initial effect in 30min to 2hours, maximum effect in 2 to 6hours
  IV: initial effect in 5 to 30min, maximum effect in 1.5 to 4hours
Side Effects dizziness, headaches, vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, rash. < 1%: arrhythmias, heart block

 

Name Diuril (chlorothiazide)
Class diuretic
Indications decreasing vascular congestion in the lungs; management of high blood pressure (hypertension)
Mechanism of Action Diuril works by blocking the reabsorption of salt (sodium and chloride) by the kidneys, resulting in a profound increase in urine output
Dosing dosing depends on patient's age (20-30mg/kg/day, divided twice daily if < 6 months), 10-20mg/kg/day, divided once or twice daily if 6 months to 2 years, 1g/day if 2 to 12 years old)
How it's Given IV or by mouth
Frequency once or twice daily 
Time of Onset 2 hours
Side Effects low blood pressure, photosensitivity, rash, elevated blood glucose (hyperglycemia), constipation, diarrhea, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, blurred vision

 

Name Aldactone (spironolactone)
Class Diuretic
Indications decreasing vascular congestion in the lungs
Mechanism of Action increases the secretion of sodium (and water) and decreasing the excretion of potassium by the kidneys
Dosing 1 to 3mg/kg/day, divided once or twice daily
How it's Given by mouth
Frequency once or twice daily
Time of Onset 2-4 hours
Side Effects rash, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, headache, sleepiness, confusion, impotence, gynecomastia 

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Children's Heart Institute

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