Medications that thin the blood and prevent clot formation ("Anti-Coagulants")

 

Name Aspirin
Class Anti-coagulant (prevents clot formation in blood vessels) - "blood thinner"
Indications Aspirin has multiple properties including anti-inflammatory (prevents or reduces inflammation), anti-pyretic (reduces fever), analgesic (pain control), and anti-coagulation (prevents clot-formation by preventing the blood's platelets from sticking together too tightly)
Mechanism of Action Aspirin blocks the formation of chemicals in the body that trigger the body's inflammatory response.
Dosing

For patients less than 12 years old, the starting dose is 10-15 mg/kg/day with a maximum of 60-80 mg/kg/day

For patients more than 12 years old, the starting dose is 325 to 650mg per day.

For treatment of Kawasaki disease:  the starting dose is 80 to 100mg/kg/day for up to 14 days (48 to 72 hours after the fever has disappeared), after which the dose is reduced to the maintenance dose of 3 to 6 mg/kg/day.

How it's Given by mouth
Frequency once daily
Time of Onset starts working within 5 to 30 minutes and peaks within 3 hours.
Side Effects

 side effects are dose dependent. Children are advised not to be given aspirin unless instructed by a medical professional given the potential risk of developing Reye syndrome.

Known side effects include: swelling of the mouth or lips, airway narrowing, skin rash, skin bruising, stomach upset/pain, stomach ulcer, gastrointestinal bleeding, liver dysfunction, nausea, vomiting, hearing loss, ringing in the ears (tinnitus), kidney damage

 

 

Name Warfarin ("Coumadin")
Class Anti-coagulant (prevents clot formation in blood vessels) - "blood thinner"
Indications Prevention or treatment of blood clots; this most often used in patients with underlying structural heart disease who have undergone certain types of corrective heart surgery, typically involving the use/implantation of certain grafts/shunts, etc.)
Mechanism of Action Warfarin prevents the liver from producing blood proteins ("clotting factors") that promote the formation of blood clots within blood vessels after they have been injured.
Dosing

dose depends on multiple factors including age, weight, presence of underlying liver disease/dysfunction, and blood tests. The starting does is typically 0.1 to 0.2mg/kg. This dose is reduced in patients with underlying liver disease/dysfunction. 


The daily maintenance dose is typically adjusted based on a blood test called "INR"

How it's Given by mouth
Frequency dose and frequency depends on a blood test, the INR, and the presence or absence of symptoms.
Time of Onset starts working within 36 to 48 hours and may not have a peak effect until 1.5 to 3 days later
Side Effects  bleeding (particularly within the eye), abdominal pain, gassiness, rash, itchiness, headache, dizziness, blood the in the urine, anemia (low red blood cell count), fever, liver dysfunction.

 

 

Name enoxaparin ("Lovenox")
Class Anti-coagulant (prevents clot formation in blood vessels) - "blood thinner"
Indications Prevention or treatment of blood clots; this most often used in patients with underlying structural heart disease who have undergone certain types of corrective heart surgery, typically involving the use/implantation of certain grafts/shunts, etc.)
Mechanism of Action Inhibits the activity of a blood protein that ordinarily promotes clot formation
Dosing

Prevention of blood clots (<2 months old): 0.75 mg/kg every 12 hours

Prevention of blood clots (>2 months old): 0.5 mg/kg every 12 hours

Treatment of present blood clots (<2 months old): 1.5 mg/kg every 12 hours

Treatment of present blood clots (>2 months old): 1 mg/kg every 12 hours

How it's Given subcutaneously (thin needle injection underneath the skin)
Frequency every 12 hours
Time of Onset 3 to 5 hours
Side Effects

bleeding, fever, liver inflammation, skin reaction at site of injection, low platelet count, low red blood cell count, nausea, bruising

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Contact Us

Children's Heart Institute

P. O Box 10066 McLean, VA 22102

Central Registration (patient appointments):

phone - 703-481-5801

Billing Inquiries:

phone - 571-612-2600 /  fax - 571-266-4096